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Tag Archives: Study

Drugs could one day treat nearsightedness, reveals gene study

A study of gene changes in the retina has brought closer the day when drugs may be able to stop or reverse the development of nearsightedness, or myopia, a common condition expected to affect half the world’s population by 2050. We may soon be able to treat myopia with drugs. Dr. Andrei Tkatchenko, of Columbia University in New York City, ... Read More »

‘Winter blues’ study finds key to depression resilience

A new study used a model of seasonal affective disorder to find out why some people don’t develop depression despite being genetically predisposed to it. The findings also shed light on potential new treatments for seasonal depression. Seasonal depression affects about 5 percent of the U.S. The National Institute of Mental Health estimate that over 16 million people in the ... Read More »

Study overturns what we know about kidney stones

Current treatments for kidney stones are limited and sometimes painful. Research is changing what we thought we knew about their composition and behavior, suggesting that one day, we may fully dissolve them “right in the patient’s kidney.” Kidney stones can vary in size and texture and are made up of calcium layers, similar to other sedimentary deposits in nature. In ... Read More »

The Apple Watch 4 ECG is 98% accurate at detecting AFib, says study

Apple revealed the Apple Watch 4 at its event earlier this week, and aside from the obvious screen upgrade, the new smartwatch added additional health features, including the ability to take an FDA-approved electrocardiogram (ECG). To do get this approval, they funded a long-term study that found the smartwatch’s ECG-detecting software could accurately identify a serious condition known as atrial ... Read More »

Largest study of ‘post-treatment controllers’ reveals clues about HIV remission

Most HIV patients need to take daily anti-retroviral therapy — if they suspend treatment, HIV will rebound within 3-4 weeks. But clinical trials have revealed that a small fraction of patients can stop taking medications yet keep the virus suppressed for 24 weeks or longer, maintaining viral control without the assistance of medication. Much remains unknown about this unique group ... Read More »

Pilot study identifies strain of bacteria as chief risk factor for stomach cancer

Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have found a specific strain of Helicobacter pylori strongly correlated with stomach cancer. The research, published in the journal PLOS ONE, could eventually be used to shape treatment and screening strategies for patients. Collaborating with researchers at Zhengzhou University, the Fred Hutch team ran tests on 49 patients’ stomach endoscopy and stool samples, ... Read More »

More than 18 mn new cases of cancer expected this year: UN study

According to IARC, a specialised cancer agency of the World Health Organisation, the disease is a growing global health threat. One in five men and one in six women worldwide develop cancer during their lifetime, and one in eight men and one in 11 women die from it, IARC’s Global Cancer Observatory said on Wednesday in its first report since ... Read More »

Canine melanoma study identifies genetic basis of disease; potential drug targets

As a veterinarian, Dr. Carolyn Duregger is familiar with the telltale signs of canine melanoma. So when she gave her own dog, Parker, a routine oral examination, the 1-centimeter-diameter discolored lump in the pup’s upper right gums took her breath away. “It’s an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis that I’ve seen many times. My stomach dropped. I literally gasped,” said ... Read More »

Study links widely-used drug azathioprine to skin cancers

A drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis and vasculitis as well as to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients has been identified as an important contributor to skin cancer development, in a research study carried out at the University of Dundee, Queen Mary University of London and the Wellcome Sanger Institute. The research, published in Nature Communications, identified ... Read More »

Human gut study questions probiotic health benefits

Probiotics are found in everything from chocolate and pickles to hand lotion and baby formula, and millions of people buy probiotic supplements to boost digestive health. But new research suggests they might not be as effective as we think. Through a series of experiments looking inside the human gut, researchers show that many people’s digestive tracts prevent standard probiotics from ... Read More »

Visceral leishmaniasis on the rise in Brazil, study finds

The parasitic disease leishmaniasis is spread to humans through the bites of sandflies, and is endemic in a number of countries, including Brazil. Despite control efforts, the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis — the most severe form of the disease — rose in Brazil between 1990 and 2016, researchers have reported in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Leishmaniasis can be classified into ... Read More »

Excessive airway nerves tied to more severe asthma symptoms, study finds

A new study implicates remodeling of nerves in the airways as a key contributor to heightened sensitivity and airway constriction in patients with asthma. The study published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The results provide new insight into a little-understood factor in the development of asthma, a condition that affects about 235 million people worldwide. The study is ... Read More »

Genes are key to academic success, study suggests

Parents always worry about whether their children will do well in school, but their kids probably were born with much of what they will need to succeed. A new study published in npj Science of Learning by researchers from The University of Texas at Austin and King’s College London explains the substantial influence genes have on academic success, from the ... Read More »

Losing just six hours of sleep could increase diabetes risk, study finds

Losing a single night’s sleep may affect the liver’s ability to produce glucose and process insulin, increasing the risk of metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and type 2 diabetes. The findings of the mouse study are published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology — Endocrinology and Metabolism. The research was chosen as an APSselect ... Read More »

Zika virus study reveals possible causes of brain pathology

In healthy individuals, the Zika virus causes flu-like symptoms. If a pregnant woman becomes infected, the unborn child can suffer from severe brain abnormalities as a result of mechanisms that have not yet been explained. A study by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPI-B) shows that Zika virus proteins bind to cellular ... Read More »

Patients want more information about their medicines, study finds

Many patients want more information on the medicines they’re prescribed and greater say in the brands they use, the first major study of the burden of long-term medicine use has concluded. University of Kent pharmacy expert Professor Janet Krska carried out research into what makes long-term medicine use burdensome for patients and found that those taking the highest number of ... Read More »

Hormone therapy can make prostate cancer worse, study finds

Scientists at Cedars-Sinai have discovered how prostate cancer can sometimes withstand and outwit a standard hormone therapy, causing the cancer to spread. Their findings also point to a simple blood test that may help doctors predict when this type of hormone therapy resistance will occur. Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death in men, behind lung cancer, killing ... Read More »

You act most like ‘you’ in a time crunch, study finds

When they must act quickly, selfish people are likely to act more selfishly than usual, while pro-social people behave even more pro-socially, a new study found. The results suggest that when people don’t have much time to make a decision, they go with what they’ve done in similar situations, said Ian Krajbich, co-author of the study and assistant professor of ... Read More »

Infants can distinguish between leaders and bullies, study finds

A new study finds that 21-month-old infants can distinguish between respect-based power asserted by a leader and fear-based power wielded by a bully. The study, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, analyzed infants’ eye-gazing behavior, a standard approach for measuring expectations in children too young to explain their thinking to adults. This “violation-of-expectation” method relies on ... Read More »

Dementia symptoms peak in winter and spring, study finds

Adults both with and without Alzheimer’s disease have better cognition skills in the late summer and early fall than in the winter and spring, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Andrew Lim of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Canada, and colleagues. There have been few previous studies concerning the association ... Read More »

Neuropsychiatric disorders: Dopamine study offers hope for improved treatments

New work from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons sheds light on how dopamine receptors signal within cells, opening the door for more targeted — and more tolerable — therapeutics to treat an array of neuropsychiatric disorders. The study’s findings have been published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. The central nervous system’s dopamine receptors play a ... Read More »

Study provides 10-year risk estimates for dementia, which may help with prevention in high-risk individuals who potentially could benefit from early targeted prevention

A Danish study provides 10-year absolute risk estimates for dementia specific to age, sex and common variation in the APOE gene, which may help identify high-risk individuals who potentially could benefit from early targeted prevention. The study is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). Dementia is a major cause of disability in older adults worldwide, yet no effective treatment ... Read More »

Cardiovascular disease: Study finds best drugs for prevention

A large cohort study has identified which treatment combinations work best for people with high blood pressure who are at risk of heart disease. Taking both blood pressure drugs and statins might be the best choice, the researchers find. Which treatments work best for preventing cardiovascular events? Researchers from the William Harvey Research Institute at Queen Mary University London in ... Read More »

Water worlds could support life, study says

The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. The scientific community has largely assumed that planets covered in a deep ocean would not support the cycling of ... Read More »

Stroke doubles dementia risk, concludes large-scale study

People who have had a stroke are around twice as likely to develop dementia, according to the largest study of its kind ever conducted. The University of Exeter Medical School led the study which analysed data on stroke and dementia risk from 3.2 million people across the world. The link between stroke and dementia persisted even after taking into account ... Read More »

Genomic study of 412 anthrax strains provides new virulence clues

By analyzing genomic sequences from more than 400 strains of the bacterium that causes anthrax, researchers have provided the first evidence that the severity — technically known as virulence — of specific strains may be related to the number of copies of certain plasmids they carry. Plasmids are genetic structures of the cell that can reproduce independently, and are responsible ... Read More »

Study illustrates challenges of lowering tetanus mortality

The overall mortality in patients suffering non-neonatal tetanus is high. Efforts to reduce mortality in one sub-Saharan African intensive care unit (ICU) by implementing a standard tetanus protocol did little to change mortality rates, although they shifted causes of deaths, researchers have now reported in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable neglected disease that mostly occurs in regions ... Read More »

How does helping people affect your brain? Study shows neurobiological effects of giving social support

Providing “targeted” social support to other people in need activates regions of the brain involved in parental care- which may help researchers understand the positive health effects of social ties, reports a study in Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine, the official journal of the American Psychosomatic Society. By comparison, providing “untargeted” support such as giving to charity does not ... Read More »

Multiple sclerosis drug slows brain shrinkage, study finds

Results from a clinical trial of more than 250 participants with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) revealed that ibudilast was better than a placebo in slowing down brain shrinkage. The study also showed that the main side effects of ibudilast were gastrointestinal and headaches. The study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the ... Read More »

Restless legs syndrome brain stimulation study supports motor cortex ‘excitability’ as a cause

Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say new experiments using magnetic pulse brain stimulation on people with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) have added to evidence that the condition is due to excitability and hyperarousal in the part of the brain’s motor cortex responsible for leg movement. The researchers say their findings, published online in Sleep Medicine on May 31, ... Read More »

Study of rare cancer yields therapeutic clues to combat drug resistance

Stephen Elledge, PhD, and his team did not set out to find therapies that could render tumors less resistant to therapy or make existing drugs more potent against a rare form of cancer. But these are precisely the clinical insights that their most recent study has yielded. The team set out to explore cancer drivers that allow NUT midline carcinoma ... Read More »

Writing ‘thank you’ notes may boost your well-being: Study

Researchers, including Amit Kumar from the University of Texas at Austin in the US, asked participants to write a letter of gratitude to someone who has done something nice for them and then anticipate the recipient’s reaction. They found that letter writers overestimated how awkward recipients would feel about the gesture and underestimated how surprised and positive recipients would feel. ... Read More »

Tree swallow study: Stressful events have long-term health impacts

Little is known about how brief yet acute stressors — such as war, natural disasters and terror attacks — affect those exposed to them, though human experience suggests they have long-term impacts. Two recent studies of tree swallows uncover long-term consequences of such passing but major stressful events. Both studies provide information on how major stressful events have lasting effects ... Read More »

Writing a ‘thank you’ note is more powerful than we realize, study shows

New research from The University of Texas at Austin proves writing letters of gratitude, like Jimmy Fallon’s “Thank You Notes,” is a pro-social experience people should commit to more often. The gesture improves well-being for not only letter writers but recipients as well. Published in Psychological Science, research conducted by assistant professor of marketing in the McCombs School of Business ... Read More »

Scientists alter membrane proteins to make them easier to study

About 30 percent of the proteins encoded by the human genome are membrane proteins — proteins that span the cell membrane so they can facilitate communication between cells and their environment. These molecules are critical for learning, seeing, and sensing odors, among many other functions. Despite the prevalence of these proteins, scientists have had difficulty studying their structures and functions ... Read More »

Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, study suggests

Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, according to a large study presented today at ESC Congress 2018. Study author Professor Maciej Banach, of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland, said: “We found that people who consumed a low carbohydrate diet were at greater risk of premature death. Risks were also increased for individual causes of death including ... Read More »

Study helps children hit the right note in supporting autistic peers

Collaborative music lessons in schools improve the attitudes of pupils towards their peers with autism, a new study in the journal Autism reports. Led by Anna Cook, PhD student at the University of Surrey, researchers found that the interactive sessions produced findings that could potentially reduce bullying of autistic students. The research investigated the impact of school-based music lessons on ... Read More »

Algae a threat to walleye vision, study finds

Walleye and the fish they eat struggle to see in water clouded by algae, and that could potentially jeopardize the species’ future if harmful algal blooms persist, according to a new study. The research, led by Suzanne Gray of The Ohio State University, found that algae posed more of a threat to adequate vision than an equal amount of sediment ... Read More »

Happy older people may live longer: Study

The study, published in the journal Age and Ageing, used data for 4,478 participants of a survey to look at the association between happiness, assessed in the year 2009, and subsequent likelihood of dying due to any cause, until December 31, 2015. “The findings indicate that even small increments in happiness may be beneficial to older people’s longevity,” said Rahul ... Read More »

Study finds 1 in 12 children taking multiple medications at risk

According to new research from the University of Illinois at Chicago, about one in five children regularly use prescription medications, and nearly one in 12 of those children are at risk for experiencing a harmful drug-drug interaction. The findings from the study, which is published in the journal Pediatrics, indicate that adolescent girls are at highest risk of potential adverse ... Read More »

Major cause of heart attacks in women investigated in new study

The initial findings of a study on spontaneous coronary artery dissection, a major cause of heart attacks in women, are reported today in a late breaking science session at ESC Congress 2018. Professor Jacqueline Saw, principal investigator, of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, said: “Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) causes around one-third of heart attacks in women under ... Read More »