The petition was filed by an organization linked to opposition Sri Lanka People party (SLPP) led by former President Mahinda Rajapksa.
SLPP had earlier announced that it will approach the court to force government for an early elections.
Six of the nine provinces in the country are without councils now while term of another two will come to an end in April.
Election commission has said that it cannot hold elections because the new electoral law passed by parliament in August 2017, has not come into force yet.
President Maithripala Sirsena had introduced a cabinet resolution last month to hold elections as per the old electoral system.
However, there is no consensus among political parties on the issue and the matter is pending.